Potential application of seeds and oils of tropical plants in North Eastern Nigeria
D. Kubmarawa, J.T. Barminas, B.A. Aliyu, M.I. Kidah , C.N. Orazulume and M. Salwa
Treated effluents and sludge samples: a case study of Nigerian Guinness Brewery
T.U. Onuegbu, L.O. Okoye, I.J. Dioha, P.A.C. Okoye and P.M. Nwako
Effects of temperature and substrate concentration on fermentation characteristics of Carica papaya and Ananas sativus in shake flask cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
A.H. Baba and A.M. Saba
Heavy metal pollution status of soils: a case study of Obio/Akpor Area in Niger Delta
Comparative studies of maize (Zea mays L.) yield from application of chemical fertilizer supplemented with ashed neem seed produced at various temperatures
A.M. Saba, A.H. Baba, A. Usman and A.A. Alfa
Extinguishing novelty of hydrocarbon fires
T.U. Onuegbu, A.N. Eboatu, I.O.C. Ekejiuba, I.J. Dioha and R.U. Arinze
High performance liquid chromatographic profiles of Ganoderma species (Mushrooms) from Southern Nigeria
L.N. Ofodile, L.E. Attah, J. O. Agbaje Williams and M.S.J. Simmonds
Concentrations of selected mineral elements in commercial infant formulae marketed in Abeokuta, Ogun State
O. Bamgbose, T.A. Arowolo and J.T. Bamgbose
Inhibitory effect of onion and garlic extracts on the rancidity of palm and palm kernel oils
Effect of methyl bromide on the b-93 sulfhydryl groups of human and mouse hemoglobin
J.T. Bamgbose and O. Bamgbose
Kinetics of Cd2+and Se4+ ions removal from aqueous solution by the friuting bodies of white rot fungi (Pleurotus tuberregium)
James M. Okuo, E.O. Akpaja and Wayn O. Eguono
Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in irrigation groundwater of Lagos
O.O. Ayejuyo, A.B. Williams and S.O. Igbasan
Effect of H2SO4 treatment on the distribution of 2,4-dichlorophenol in soil clay
S.I. Omonmhenle, A.E. Ofomaja and F.E. Okieimen
Extraction and characterization of tiger nut oil
C.I.O. Kamalu and P. Oghome
Oxygen demand and its application in deriving a general procedure in balancing organic combustion reactions
Caffeine content of stored kolanuts
I.E Uwidia and M.E. Ukhun
Physico-chemical studies of dis-azo disperse dye derivatives of P-aminophenol containing 1,4- diaminobenzene moiety
J.O. Otutu, A.P. Oviawe and D.O. Ukponmwan
Complexes of nickel(II), copper(II),cobalt(II) and manganese(II) sulphates with 2-bromovaleric acid hydrazide and its acetone hydrazone
Stella A. Emmanuel and J.N. Nwabueze
Spatial distribution and speciation of arsenic, chromium and copper in contaminated soil
E.G. Uwumarongie, F.E. Okieimen and O.H. Uwumarongie
Extraction of sugar from nipa palm (Nypa fruiticans)
U.E. Ekpunobi A.N. Eboatu
Phytoremoval of heavy metals from chromated copper arsenate contaminated soil
E.G. Uwumarongie, F.E. Okieimen and O.H. Uwumarongie
Adsorption kinetics of basic violet 1 removal by Penthaclethra Mycrophylla woody-pod activated carbon
P.M. Ejikeme and A.E. Ochonogor
Correlations and partitioning of trace metals in the surface waters of Taylor Creek, Southern Nigeria
K. Opuene, I.E. Agbozu and G.E. Nwajei
Fuel properties of the derivatives of soybean oil
Determination of heavy metals in leaves of pumpkin (Telferia occidentalis) and spinach (Amaranthus cruetus) along major highways in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria
Baseline levels of indoor tsp and its elemental composition in houses of urban and rural dwellers
James M.Okuo A.P. Oviawe and Justice I. Odiase
Occurrence, composition and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in suspended particulate matter from Oginigba Creek, Southern Nigeria
I.E. Agbozu, K. Opuene and C.M.A. Iwegbue
Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial activity screening of leaves of Varnonia amygdalina
Isolation, purification and quantification of lycopene in two tomato varieties
Tannic acid as a standard for the spectrophotometric determination of tannins
P.O. Ukoha, A. Ejila, C. Maju and J.N. Asegbeloyin
Content of Nigerian coals
A.C. Etonihu and I.O. Akpabio
Characterization of mustard seed oil (Brassica juncea)
Protection of aluminum dissolution in potassium hydroxide solution using Helianthus annus extracts
C. Ajaero and A.U Ezeibe
Comparison of dyeing properties of dis – azo disperse dye analogs of 4–amino–3–nitrotoluene with those of 4-aminophenol on polyester substrate.
Removal of lead and copper from contaminated kaolin and bulk clay soils using acids and chelating agents
R.A. Wuana, F.E. Okieimen and R.E. Ikyereve
Fractionation of potassium in soil receiving palm oil mill effluent
Philip O. Oviasogie, Aiyowie E. Aghimien and Chika L. Ndiokwere
Correlation of some crude oils using low molecular weight geochemical markers: A case study of the Niger Delta.
P.N. Manilla and O.M. Onyema
The conversion of propene to other useful organic compounds
POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF SEEDS AND OILS OF TROPICAL PLANTS IN NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA
D. Kubmarawa*, J.T. Barminas, B.A. Aliyu, M. I. Kidah , C.N. Orazulume and M. Salwa
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
(Received: 11th April, 2007; Accepted: 15th August, 2007)
This work provides chemical composition of seeds of Jatropha, curcas, Isoberlinia tomentosa, Isoberlinia doka, Heeria insignis and Ceiba pentandra. The physicochemical characteristics and phenolic composition of oils extracted from seeds of these plants were also evaluated. The proximate values of the protein, oil and carbohydrate of the seeds suggest that they may be useful for formulation of animal feeds. Physiochemical analysis of the seed oils showed that all the oils could be classified as drying oils could be used in the formulation of paints. Judging from the high saponification values for Isoberlinia doka (422.15 mgKOH), Heeria insignis (260.86 mgKOH) and Ceiba pentandra (182.33 mgKOH) and their considerable oil yields, the oils from these plants can be used in soap making industry. The low peroxide values suggest the absence or low level of oxidative rancidity in the oils. The phenolic constituents of the oils were 2-chlorophenol, 2, 4 -chlorophenol and 2, 4-dimethylphenol with a high percentage in Isoberlinia tomentosa. This suggest that the oils could be used as anti-oxidants, antiseptics preservatives, as well as intermediates in the manufacture of dyestuff, pharmaceuticals, plastics, insecticides, disinfectants etc.
TREATED EFFLUENTS AND SLUDGE SAMPLES: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN GUINNESS BREWERY
T.U. Onuegbu, L.O. Okoye, I.J. Dioha, P.A.C. Okoye and P.M. Nwako
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
(Received: 21st May, 2007; Accepted: 15th August, 2007)
This research was focused on the study of the treated effluents and sludge samples from Guinness Nigeria Plc, Ogba, Lagos State, for three sampling periods; July, August and September, 2005. The treated effluents and sludge samples were collected from respective discharge points in the effluent treatment plant. The following physiochemical parameters were analyzed; temperature, TDS, TSS, TS, BOD5, COD, pH, SO42+, NO3-, Cl-, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total acidity, and total hardness. Digested samples were analyzed for heavy metals such as Cu, Ni, Pb and As using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In addition, an IR spectroscopy was run on the two samples for identification of the organic functional groups present in them. Results of the physiochemical analysis showed that they were all within WHO and FEPA limits except TS, TSS and COD.
EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION ON FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF Carica papaya and Ananas sativus IN SHAKE FLASK CULTURES OF Saccharomyces cerevisiae
A.H. Baba and A.M. Saba
Chemical Engineering Department, The Federal Polytechnic, P. M. B. 55, Bida, Nigeria.
(Received: 20th July, 2007; Accepted 30th August, 2007)
Alcoholic fermentation of Carica papaya and Ananas sativus juice by Saccharomyces cerevisia was studied in a batch fermenter to determine the effects of temperature on biomass concentration, residual substrate concentration and alcohol yield at pH 4.0. The effect of initial substrate concentration on these characteristics is also reported. Alcohol yield was found to vary with temperature and initial substrate concentration for both sources. Alcohol yields at 45oC, 40oC, and 35oC were 89.5%, 80.4% and 62% respectively for Ananas sativus. The corresponding values for these temperatures with respect to Carica papaya were 70%, 69.1% and 29.6ae%. Kinetic equations relating cell concentration to the rate of alcohol production is suggested for design purposes.
HEAVY METAL POLLUTION STATUS OF SOILS: A CASE STUDY OF OBIO/AKPOR AREA IN NIGER DELTA
Department of Industrial Chemistry, Ebonyi State University, Abakiliki
(Accepted: 30th August, 2007)
The location of Rivers State favours the establishment of Industries which has contributed immensely to heavy metal pollution of the soils in the Niger Delta. The concentrations of heavy metals Cadmium, Lead, Chromium and Iron in these soils were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean concentration ranged 0.017-0996 ppm for Cr; 0.001-0.010ppm for Cd; 0.018-0.044 for Pb and 10.193-23.039 ppm for Fe in the soil samples. The Ph of the samples ranged 3.7-6.6 for soil at WIL, 7.3-7.9 for HFN and 3.6-3.7 for EWR.
COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.) YIELD FROM APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZER SUPPLEMENTED WITH ASHED NEEM SEED PRODUCED AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES
A.M. Saba1, A.H. Baba1, A. Usman2 and A.A. Alfa3
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 55, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.
2National Cereals Research Institute, P.M.B. 8, Badeggi, Niger State, Nigeria.
3Department of Agric Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 55, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.
(Received: 20th July, 2007; Accepted: 30th August, 2007)
Analysis of Neem seed ashed at 400oC, 500oC, and 600oC, was carried out using the AOAC, 1990 standard. The elements analyzed for include, Na, Ca, P, Mn, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and K. Their respective concentrations at 400oC, 500oC, and 600oC, in mg/100g, were (3.79, 7.12, 10.28), (8.79, 9.33, 13.05), (8.45, 11.91, 9.86), (6.16, 8.87, 8.60), (11.48, 6.68, 12.84), (7.5, 12.35, 5.63), ( 19.79, 23.06, 24.49), (9.56, 11.21, 12.31), (10.05, 11.62, 24.69). These values, suggest its applicability on plants for higher yield when blended with NPK. The application of this blend (NPK with ashed Neem at various temperatures) significantly increased the yield of maize planted on sandy soils from 0.69 t/ha for control to 2.40t/ha for blend of 600oC. Similar increases were obtained for other temperatures but to lesser values.
EXTINGUISHING NOVELTY OF HYDROCARBON FIRES
T.U. Onuegbu, A.N. Eboatu, I.O.C. Ekejiuba, I.J. Dioha and R.U. Arinze
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
(Received: 21st May, 2007; Accepted: 6th September, 2007)
In recent years, dry chemicals have proved their effectiveness in fighting hydrocarbon fires. The most popular dry chemical powdered extinguishers in the market have their principal extinguishing agent as sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate, both of which are expensive and not readily available in the country. Results show that potassium aluminium sulphate, super phosphate fertilizers and kaolin were very effective extinguishing agents for PMS fires. Potassium aluminium sulphate was the most effective follow by super phosphate fertilizer.
HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC PROFILES OF Ganoderma species (MUSHROOMS) FROM SOUTHERN NIGERIA.
L.N. Ofodile1, L.E. Attah2, J. O. Agbaje Williams3 and M.S.J. Simmonds4
1Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos
2Department of Chemical Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar
3Department of Chemical Sciences, School of Science, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos
4 Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond TW9 3AB, UK
(Received: 25th November, 2006; Accepted: 10th October, 2007)
Four species of Ganoderma (G. lucidum, G. boninense, G. colossum and G. resinaceum) obtained from Southern Nigeria were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to produce the profiles of their secondary metabolites. Results show that peaks of the secondary metabolites have characteristic constituents that are typical of each species. G. lucidum, G. boninense, and G. recinaceum showed tannin peaks which were absent in G. colossum. The profiles of G. colossum were identified as triterpenoids known as colossolactones. The patterns of peak of these species of mushroom could be used as fingerprints that would assist in their identification.
CONCENTRATIONS OF SELECTED MINERAL ELEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL INFANT FORMULAE MARKETED IN ABEOKUTA, OGUN STATE
O. Bamgbose1*, T.A. Arowolo1 and J.T. Bamgbose2
1Department of Environmental Mgt. & Toxicology, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Ogun State.
2Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Ogun State.
(Received: 27th June, 2007; Accepted: 27th September, 2007)
Eight different brands of commercial infant formulae marketed in Abeokuta were analyzed for sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium by a flame photometer. The analytical method subjected to a quality assurance test showed that a 0.25g sample weight gave comparable results with a 1.00g sample weight.
The results obtained for the mineral elements ranged from 2.6 to 4.5 mg/g for Na, 4.1 to 8.4 mg/g for K, 1.8 to 6.2 mg/g for Ca and 0.2 to 0.8 mg/g, for Mg. A comparison of these results to that of the manufacturer’s levels showed statistical differences for the milk brands of Frisolac (for the metals Na, K, Ca and Mg.), Frisocrem (for the metals, Na and Ca,) Cow and Gate (for the metals Na, K, Ca) and Similac (for the metals Na, K, and Mg.) A general trend of K> Ca > Na > Mg > was obtained for five of the brands. In general the results showed that the formulae are good sources of Na, K and Ca but poor sources of Mg.
INHIBITORY EFFECT OF ONION AND GARLIC EXTRACTS ON THE RANCIDITY OF PALM AND PALM KERNEL OILS
Chemistry Department, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B 7267, Umuahia, Abia State
(Received: 14th April, 2007; Accepted: 12th October, 2007)
The rancidity of palm oil and palm kernel oil blended with onion (Allium Cepa ver cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts was investigated. The unblended (Pure) and the blended oil samples were left to stand in the open for 10 weeks and their free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide values (PV) were determined bi-weekly. The unblended oil samples showed marked increases in the free fatty acid and peroxide values. The blended oil samples showed marked inhibition in the development of free fatty acids (FFA) and peroxides for the period.
EFFECT OF METHYL BROMIDE ON THE b-93 SULFHYDRYL GROUPS OF HUMAN AND MOUSE HEMOGLOBIN.
J.T. Bamgbose1 and O. Bamgbose 2
1Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, P.MB 2240 Abeokuta, Ogun – State, Nigeria
2Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.
(Received: 8th June, 2007; Accepted: 16th October, 2007)
Work has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of methyl bromide with b-93 sulfhydryl groups of human and mouse hemoglobin at physiology pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide. In order to ascertain if the site of alkylation was the reactive sulfhydryl group present at cystein – 93 on the b-chain of hemoglobin (b-93 cys), a spectrophotometric measurement using 5, 5-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) was used to measure the free sulfhydryl groups before and after treatment of hemoglobin with various amounts of methyl bromide. It was observed that the methyl bromide reacted substantially with both human and mouse hemoglobin at b-93 cys. The results showed a dose-dependent decrease in the number of sulfhydryl groups, thus indicating that hemoglobin can serve as a biomarker of human occupational exposure to methyl bromide fumigants. The decrease in the number of sulfhydryl groups (~ SH) per hemoglobin molecule ranges from 5.10 to 2.35 + 0.01 and 5.01 to 0.93 + 0.01 for human and mouse hemoglobin respectively.
KINETICS OF Cd2+and Se4+ IONS REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY THE FRIUTING BODIES OF WHITE ROT FUNGI (Pleurotus tuberregium).
James M. Okuo1, E.O. Akpaja2 and Wayn O. Eguono3
1Analytical Research Laboratory Department, University of Benin, Benin City.
2Department of Botany, University of Benin, Benin City.
3Department of Industrail Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City.
The batch removal of Cd2+ and Se4+ ions from aqueous solution using fruiting bodies of the white rot fungus, Pleurotus tuberregium was investigated in this study. The effect of temperature, pH, time, adsorbent dose and concentrations were also investigated. The optimum dose of adsorbent was found to be 1.0g for both ions, while sorption was most favoured at pH 2 for Se 4+ions and pH 2 and 3 for Cd2+ ions. The sorption of both ions was found to fit the Langmuir isotherm model, suggesting a monolayer adsorption. The kinetic models show the rate of fractional attainment of equilibrium to be particle diffusion controlled for both metal ions.
ASSESSMENT OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN IRRIGATION GROUNDWATER OF LAGOS
O. O. Ayejuyo1, A. B. Williams2 and S. O. Igbasan3
1Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Lagos.
2Department of Chemistry, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State.
3Department of Chemistry, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos
(Received: 10th August, 2007; Accepted: 23rd October, 2007)
Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) contamination of groundwater used in irrigating some vegetable farms in Lagos has been assessed. Seven samples of well water from three selected vegetable farms were collected and analyzed for the presence of the following organochlorine pesticide residues: α, β, δ (HCH), lindane, PP1–DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. The study revealed traces of organochlorine pesticide residues in the environment. The residues were determined using gas chromatography. Varied mean concentrations of the residues were obtained from the different wells. The highest mean concentration of 0.008μg/L was obtained for α- HCH in Abule-Ado. Lindane, dieldrin and endrin gave the same mean concentration of 0.001 μg/L in all the samples investigated. The mean levels for α-HCH, β-HCH, δ-HCH, PP1-DDT and aldrin were 0.006μg/L, 0.002μg/L, 0.003μg/L, 0.002μg/L and 0.004μg/L respectively. For heptachlor, a mean level of 0.003μg/L was recorded for all the farms. The values obtained from the selected wells were within the permissible levels prescribed by Federal Environmental Protection Agency and United States Environmental Protection Agency.
EFFECT OF H2SO4 TREATMENT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL IN SOIL CLAY.
S.I. Omonmhenle*, A.E. Ofomaja and F.E. Okieimen
Department Of Chemistry, University Of Benin, Nigeria.
(Received: 21st July, 2007; Accepted: 23rd October, 2007)
Soil clay taken from Delta State Nigeria was treated using hydrogen peroxide to destroy organic matter and then with various concentrations (0.25-6.00M) of H2SO4 and designated M0.5, M1.0, M2.0, M4.0 and M6.0.The treated soil samples were characterized in terms of their surface areas and cation exchange capacities. The effect of H2SO4 treatment on the uptake and distribution of 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solution by the clay was studied.
The uptake of 2,4-dichlorophenol was found to increase with decrease in the cation exchange capacity of the clay. The sorption data was fitted into the Langmuir isotherm and adsorption capacities of between 42.19mg/g and 53.70mg/g were determined.
Distribution of 2,4-dichlorophenol between solid and solution were higher for samples M6.0 and M0.5 with lower cation exchange capacity values within the concentration range of 2,4-dichlorophenol used. The distribution coefficient increased with decrease in 2,4-dichlorophenol concentration suggesting that the process is enthalpy driven and that adsorption rather than partition may be the mechanism of uptake and distribution of the organic compound.
EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TIGER NUT OIL
C.I.O. Kamalu and P. Oghome
Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Nigeria
(Received: 15th August, 2007; Accepted: 12th December, 2007)
Tiger nut oil was obtained by extraction from the nut of the plant cyperaceae. Parameters such as iodine value, saponification value, free fatty acid, melting point, flash point, smoke point and density were determined. UV spectrum of the oil was conducted at wave lengths between 200 – 800nm. The aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon profile were determined by chromatography. The GLC showed the presence of alkane with carbon atom above C8 in aliphatic hydrocarbon and conjugated rings in aromatic hydrocarbon. Results of other chemical and physical properties conformed with values in the literature.
OXYGEN DEMAND AND ITS APPLICATION IN DERIVING A GENERAL PROCEEDURE IN BALANCING ORGANIC COMBUSTION REACTIONS
Department of Chemistry, Rivers State College of Education, P M B 5047, Port Harcourt
(Received: 11th September, 2007; Accepted: 12th December, 2007)
This paper introduced the term oxygen demand, defined and illustrated it with combustion reactions in oxygen. The oxygen demand is used to derive a general procedure for balancing any organic combustion reaction (hydrocarbon or not, controlled or explosive) of every day encounter. Its relationship to oxygen balance and its other applications are highlighted with vivid examples. The oxygen demand procedure is easy, versatile and of general application, not restricted to any family, as hitherto been the case with existing methods.
CAFFEINE CONTENT OF STORED KOLANUTS
I.E Uwidia and M.E. Ukhun
Department of Chemistry, University of Benin City, Nigeria
(Received: 15th September, 2007; Accepted: 18th December, 2007)
The caffeine content of three types of Nigeria kolanuts (K. nitida; K acuminata and Gacinian kola), were determined spectrophotometrically. The effects of length of storage at ambient temperature on the caffeine contents were also determined on the three types of kola.
K. nitida had the highest caffeine content on both dry and wet matter bases, followed by K. acuminata and Gacinian kola. Moisture content ranged between 0.02 and 0.10%. The caffeine content of the kolanut samples decreased with increasing length of storage and with increase in temperature.
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES OF DIS-AZO DISPERSE DYE DERIVATIVES OF P-AMINOPHENOL CONTAINING 1,4- DIAMINOBENZENE MOIETY
J.O. Otutua, A.P. Oviaweb and D.O. Ukponmwanb
Department of Chemistry, Delta State University Abraka
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City.
(Received: 12th August, 2007; Accepted: 21st December, 2007)
The physico-chemical properties of Dis-azo disperse dye derivatives of P-aminophenol on polyester and nylon 6 fibres are reported. Many of the dyes have higher affinities for the nylon 6 fibre than for polyester fibre. The enthalpy of dyeing is the main driving force of dyeing as the entropy of dyeing gave negative values which will not favour dyeing. The hydrogen bonding mechanism is believed to be operative in the two dye-fibre systems. The results of the diffusion (sorption) coefficient studies on nylon 6 fibre did not however show any general trend.
COMPLEXES OF NICKEL(II), COPPER(II),COBALT(II) AND MANGANESE(II) SULPHATES WITH 2-BROMOVALERIC ACID HYDRAZIDE AND ITS ACETONE HYDRAZONE
Stella A. Emmanuel1 and J.N. Nwabueze2
1Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO), P.M.B 186, Garki Abuja. Nigeria.
2Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, P.M.B 117 Gwagwalada Abuja. Nigeria.
(Received: 23rd October, 2007; Accepted 21st December, 2007)
Chelates of 2-Bromovaleric acid hydrazide (BVH) and its Acetone hydrazone, (ABVH) with MSO4 (where M is Ni,Cu,Co and Mn) were synthesized in water/ ethanol medium. They were characterized by infrared, electronic spectral, solubility, elemental analysis, conductivity and microbial studies. Electronic spectral data indicate an octahedral geometry for all the complexes while the infrared spectral studies suggest that the hydrazone acts as a neutral bidentate donor coordinating through carbonyl oxygen and azomethine nitrogen while the hydrazide coordinates through the carbonyl oxygen and primary amino nitrogen. The conductivity value showed the complexes are non electrolytes. The anti- microbial screening showed that most of the complexes are active against pseudomonas; Escherica coli; steptoccocus; staphloccocus aureus; but few of the complexes were resisted by the organisms.
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND SPECIATION OF ARSENIC, CHROMIUM AND COPPER IN CONTAMINATED SOIL
E.G. Uwumarongiea*, F.E. Okieimenb and O.H. Uwumarongie**
aEdo State Environmental Laboratory, Sapele Road, Benin City
bDepartment of Chemistry, University if Benin, Benin City.
(Received: 5th December, 2007; Accepted: 8th January, 2008)
Intense wood treatment for a long time caused the accumulation of heavy metals in soils at a wood treatment facility. The soils showed great risks for the surrounding environment due to strong wind and water erosion which washes the chemical used in treating the wood into the near-by Ogba River, a source of domestic water supply to the Iyekogba community in the state capital. Analysis of soil samples collected from the Wood Treatment Factory site showed high concentrations of arsenic, chromium and copper in the representative soil analysed. Total value of 47.75mg/kg arsenic, 659.43mg/kg chromium and 406.50mg/kg copper were obtained in the representative soil sample. These values were above threshold values. Speciation/fractionation studies on the soil sample showed that 33.92-100% arsenic, 0.00-37.14% chromium and 0.00-25.59% copper were potentially bioavailable. The results obtained suggest that remediation measures should be taken.
EXTRACTION OF SUGAR FROM NIPA PALM (Nypa fruiticans)
U.E. Ekpunobi+* A.N. Eboatu+
+Pure & Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B 5025, Awka.
(Received: 15th August, 2007; Accepted: 8th January, 2008)
Nipa Palm (Nypa fruiticans) which was once regarded as an environmental menace has been analysed and found to be potentially of economic value. Nipa nuts were analysed for sugar production. Sugars were extracted from the nuts using distilled water. Freeze drying technique was used to recover sugar from the extract. By means of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, paper chromatography and thin layer chromatography the sugars were analysed. The two sugars found were identified as fructose and glucose.
PHYTOREMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE CONTAMINATED SOIL.
E.G. Uwumarongiea*, F. E. Okieimenb and O.H. Uwumarongie**
aEdo State Environmental Laboratory, Sapele Road, Benin City
bDepartment of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City.
(Received: 7th November, 2008; Accepted 8th January, 2008)
Phytoextraction of Cr and Cu from a Chromated Copper Arsenate contaminated soil obtained from a wood treatment factory was studied. Heavy metal levels in the CCA contaminated soil showed high concentration of As, Cr and Cu. Mean values of 39.55mg/kg As, 313.97mg/kg Cr and 200.00mg/kg Cu were obtained in the CCA soil before planting. The values of As, Cr and Cu decreased in CCA contaminated soil and increased in maize seedlings with days. 61% As, 93% Cr and 68% Cu were found in the CCA contaminated soil 20 days after germination.
ADSORPTION KINETICS OF BASIC VIOLET 1 REMOVAL BY Penthaclethra Mycrophylla WOODY-POD ACTIVATED CARBON
P.M. Ejikeme* and A.E. Ochonogor
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
(Received: 24th August, 2007; Accepted: 8th January, 2008)
Woody pod of oil bean (Penthaclethra Mycrophylla), a waste of no commercial value, was investigated as a new sorbent for basic violet 1 dye The activated carbon was prepared from the woody pods using zinc chloride as the activating agent and carbonized at a temperature of 6000C for 1 h. in a muffle furnace.
The adsorption was found to follow first-order kinetics. The amount of the dye adsorbed was found to vary with the initial dye concentration. Isotherm study shows that the adsorption process can be fitted into the Langmuir isotherm.
CORRELATIONS AND PARTITIONING OF TRACE METALS IN THE SURFACE WATERS OF TAYLOR CREEK, SOUTHERN NIGERIA
K. Opuene1*, I.E. Agbozu2 and G.E. Nwajei3
1Industrial Laboratory, OB/OB Gas Plant, Nigerian Agip Oil Company Ltd., PMB 35, Omoku, Rivers State. Nigeria
2Department of Applied Chemical Sciences, Niger Delta University, P.M.B. 71, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
3Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, Abraka. Delta State. Nigeria
(Received: 18th December, 2007; Accepted: 10th January, 2008)
Trace metals in the dissolved phase and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were investigated in five selected sites along Taylor Creek, southern Nigeria by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The degree of correlations between the various metals was different in each of the investigated matrices. In the matrices studied, only Fe-Cr (r=0.54) and Ni-Zn (r=0.72) are correlated in SPM. In the dissolved phase, no strong correlations (P<0.05) between the trace metals were observed. The best correlations were observed for Ni-Zn (r=0.72) and Cd-Pb (r=0.65). However, correlations of total metal levels were better than the individual phases. Besides, total Pb was correlated with SPM levels, which indicates a strong dependence of Pb on SPM content in the water column. Partitioning coefficients (Kd) of trace metals between dissolved phase and SPM are generally low, which is typical for fresh water ecosystems and fairly stable over the creek all through the seasons. Thus, the state of the aquatic ecosystem indicates that the trace metals, which are bio-accumulatable, could contribute to inferior biodiversity and shifts in community composition from sensitive to tolerant taxa.
FUEL PROPERTIES OF THE DERIVATIVES OF SOYBEAN OIL
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
(Received: 28th August, 2007; Accepted: 8th January, 2008)
Soybean oil was extracted from soybean seeds with petroleum ether (600C-800C boiling range). The physicochemical properties of the soybean oil were determined and the oil alkali refined, and adsorptively bleached. Transesterifying the oil with a monohydric alcohol (methanol) using a catalytic amount of sodium hydroxide gave fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel) of the oil.
Results show that as temperature increased from 400C-700C, the reaction time decreased. The yield of the biodiesel increased with temperature just as that of glycerol decreased at a given time. The refractive indices of the products decreased with increase in temperature while the viscosity, in centistokes, increased. The heat of combustion of the biodiesel was found to be 39.68kJmol-1. The other fuel properties of the fatty acid methyl ester produced were better than that of the neat oil and comparable to that of both biodiesel from other oils and conventional petroleum diesel.
DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN LEAVES OF PUMPKIN (Telferia occidentalis) AND SPINACH (Amaranthus cruetus)ALONG MAJOR HIGHWAYS IN OWERRI, SOUTH EASTERN IN NIGERIA
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 1526, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria.
The element concentrations in leaves of Telferia occidentalis and Amaranthus cruetus planted in farms along Owerri/Aba, Owerri/Onitsha, Owerri/ Port-Harcourt and Owerri/Okikwe highways were studies. Leaf samples of Telferia occidentalis and Amaranthus cruetus were collected at different distance from four major highways and analyzed for Pb, Mn, Cr, Zn, As and Cd using AAS. The Pb ranged from mean levels of 12.063-1305µg/g in leaves of Telferia occidentalis along Owerri/Onitsha highway while that of Mn in leaves of Amaranthus cruetus and Telferia occidentalis ranged from 361.00 – 489.00µg/g and 257.33 – 265.00µ/g along Owerri/Port Harcourt and Owerri/Aba highways respectively. The Cd ranged from means levels of 1.433-5.04µg/g in leaves of Amaranthus cruetus in all the four major highways studied.
BASELINE LEVELS OF INDOOR TSP AND ITS ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION IN HOUSES OF URBAN AND RURAL DWELLERS
James M.Okuo1* A.P. Oviawe1 and Justice I. Odiase2
1Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City.
2Department of Mathematics, University of Benin, Benin City.
The total suspended particulate (TSP) and its elemental composition of indoor (parlour) and outdoor (kitchen) environments in industrial and rural community were investigated. Samples of TSP were collected by gravimetric method and analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) method. The TSP loads were in the range of 666.67 – 4250.00µgm-3 for both sites. The results obtained showed that the TSP and its elemental constituents in the industrial city were about 2-16 folds that of the rural community. Two major factors were identified as contributing sources to TSP and its elemental composition. The levels of the metals recorded for both sites were quite remarkable and was an indication of other anthropogenic sources contributing to elevated levels observed. The highest result was obtained for Se (112.71µgm-3), Ni (74.68µgm-3) and Cr (85.78µgm-3) for the industrial city while values of 40.48, 18.22 and13.43µgm-3 were recorded for Se, Ni, and Cr respectively in the rural community.
OCCURRENCE, COMPOSITION AND SOURCE IDENTIFICATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER FROM OGINIGBA CREEK, SOUTHERN NIGERIA
I.E. Agbozu1, K. Opuene2* and C.M.A. Iwegbue3
1Department of Applied Chemical Sciences, Niger Delta University, P.M.B. 71, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
2Industrial Laboratory, OB/OB Gas Plant, Nigerian Agip Oil Company Ltd., PMB 35, Omoku, Rivers State. Nigeria
3Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, Abraka. Delta State. Nigeria
(Received: 15th December, 2007; Accepted: 3rd February, 2008)
The composition and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their relation to potential pollution sources were investigated in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from Oginigba Creek, southern Nigeria. Total PAH concentrations varied from 3850.91 to 7681.39 µg/g dry weights in SPM. While the 2, 3-ring PAHs were not dominant in SPM (0.06%), phenanthrene was more abundant of the 2, 3-ring PAHs in SPM. Four origin indices or concentration ratios of PAH isomer pairs were used to evaluate the suitability of these compounds as tracers to distinguish between contamination arising from different sources. A critical appraisal of the PAH indices, therefore, suggested that petroleum combustion is the major PAH source in SPM from the aquatic ecosystem. Relative PAH patterns in SPM was also evaluated using principal component analysis and was found to correlate with the PAH patterns of the different potential contamination sources. Furthermore, the distribution of perylene in SPM indicated that the creek was the dominant source of the compound and that perylene could be taken as an index to assess the contribution of water column inflow, which was contributory to the total PAHs in SPM.
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY SCREENING OF LEAVES OF Varnonia amygdalina
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.
(Received: 4th October, 2007; Accepted: 15th January, 2008)
Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial investigation of the crude extracts from the leaves of Varnonia amygdalina showed the presence of tannis, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids and resins. The presence of these components shows the pharmacological property of the plant, TLC analysis revealed two spots, three spots and two spots for ethanol, petroleum ether and toluene extract respectively using ethyl acetate: hexane solvent mixture. The crude ethanolic, petroleum ether and toluene extracts had inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyrogenes, Escherichia coli, Bacillius cerus and Erwinia specie. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude extracts were determined for the various organism.
ISOLATION, PURIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF LYCOPENE IN TWO TOMATO VARIETIES
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1056, Owerri.
(Received 16th July, 2007; Accepted: 4th February, 2008)
Lycopene was isolated from tomatoes juice of two varieties, the cylindrical and round shaped species. The paste of the separated juice was dehydrated with methanol and the lycopene was extracted from the residue with methanol and carbon tetrachloride.
The product was purified by recrystalisation from benzene to give 98.99% purity and melting point of 172.8oC.
Results show that the round shape specie contains an average of 14.96mg/10g of lycopene, whereas the corresponding cylindrical shaped specie contains an average of 12.09mg/10g.
Tannic Acid as a Standard for the Spectrophotometric
Determination of Tannins
P.O. Ukoha1*, A. Ejila2, C. Maju2 and J.N. Asegbeloyin1
1Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State
2Federal College of Chemical and Leather Technology, P. M. B. 1034, Zaria.
(Received: 27th August, 2007; Accepted: 4th February, 2008)
Tannic acid is the main component of gallotannins in many plants. Its complex with iron (III) ion shows bluish – black colour at high concentration but purplish colour at low concentration and lmax of 570 nm. At this lmax, it obeys the Beer – Lambert’s law at a concentration range of 2.0 x 10‑5 to 1.85 x 10-4 mol dm-3 at slightly excess iron (III) concentration. Tannins extracted from Parkia biglobosa, Acacia nilotica var. adansonii and Eucalyptus citroidora exudates also gave similar lmax with iron (III). This formed the basis for a novel method of utilizing tannic acid as a standard reagent for the determination of these tannins. The results of the concentration obtained are slightly higher than in conventional Shakes method. Also, this method was employed in determining the variation of tannin concentration with respect to period of maturation and age of the plant in A. nilotica var. adansonii pods. This method is fast, easier and more reliable than other methods in use.
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS CONTENT OF NIGERIAN COALS
A.C. Etonihu1* and I.O. Akpabio2
1Department of Chemistry, Nasarawa State University, P.M.B 1022, Keffi, Nasarawa
State, Nigeria. E-mail: Criseto@yahoo.com
2Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B 0248, Bauchi,
Bauchi State, Nigeria.
(Received 2nd July, 2007; Accepted: 4th February, 2008)
Outcrops of seven different coals CKL1, LJC2, LOC3, JC4, ONC5, OKC6, and EZC8 from the major coal-bearing states of Nigeria were chemically analyzed by conventional methods. Samples were pulverized to 75μm and solvent extracted with benzene-methanol mixture (3:1 v/v) at 80oC for 48 h. Extracts were fractionated using column chromatography by n-hexane, benzene, and methanol elution. The components of the fractions were identified using gas chromatography. Proximate and ultimate analyses of pulverized samples showed significant variations in parameters that ranked these coals as lignites (CKL1 and LJC2), sub-bituminous (ONC5, OKC6, and EZC8), and bituminous (LOC3 and JC4). Percent moisture, volatile (db) matter, and ash contents (db) were highest in CKL1 with 11.02, 46.97, and 10.20% respectively, but lowest in LOC3 and JC4. Both LOC3 and JC4 had the highest percent total sulphur (daf) contents. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were highest in OKC6 (19.17%) but lowest in LJC2 (2.20%). The carcinogenic PAHs were not detected in any of the samples.
CHARACTERIZATION OF MUSTARD SEED OIL (Brassica juncea)
Department of Industrial Chemistry, Ebonyi State University Abakaliki.
The mustard seeds oil was obtained by solvent extraction using petroleum ether. The golden yellow oil obtained was characterized by determining the free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value, specific gravity and titre value. Thin layer and gas chromatographic analysis of the petroleum ether (60-80) extract revealed the presence of five fatty acids; palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linoleic acids. The IR absorption bands from 2500cm-1-3300cm-1is indicative of the presence of OH group(hydrogen bonded hydroxyl), 1760cm-1 dimeric C=O of carboxylic acids and 1640cm-1 of C=C bonds of alkenes.
PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION IN POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION USING Helianthus annus EXTRACTS.
C. Ajaeroa and A.U Ezeibeb
a Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. P.M.B. 1526 Owerri, Imo State
b Department of Chemistry, Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, P.M.B. 1526 Owerri, Imo State
The protection of aluminium dissolution in basic medium using Helianthus annus extracts was carried out via gasometric technique at 30oC.
Dissolution was found to increase with increase corrodent concentration and follows the order: 0.5M > 0.4M > 0.3M > 0.2M > 0.1M.
The inhibition efficiency was observed to increase with decrease in corrode concentration with maximum value of 85.4% obtained for 0.1M KOH plus inhibitor solutions.
Kinetic evaluation of the experimental result suggests that the molecules of the inhibitor are physically adsorbed on the Al surface.
COMPARISON OF DYEING PROPERTIES OF DIS – AZO DISPERSE DYE ANALOGS OF 4–AMINO–3–NITROTOLUENE WITH THOSE OF 4-AMINOPHENOL ON POLYESTER SUBSTRATE.
Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, Abraka.
(Received: 10th January, 2008; Accepted: 10th March, 2008)
The preparation and comparison of the dyeing properties of dis–azo disperse dye analogous of 4–amino–3–nitrotoluene with those of 4–aminophenol on polyester substrate is reported. The 4–amino–3–nitrotoluene dye derivatives gave very good light fastness rating than their 4–aminophenol counterparts which gave good ratings. However, the wet (wash, and perspiration) fastness and sublimation fastness were excellent in both analogues. The structure of the compounds was evaluated by IR and UV – Vis analyses.
REMOVAL OF LEAD AND COPPER FROM CONTAMINATED KAOLIN AND BULK CLAY SOILS USING ACIDS AND CHELATING AGENTS
R.A. Wuana1*, F.E. Okieimen2 and R.E. Ikyereve1
1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Benue State University, Makurdi, 970001, Nigeria.
2 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
(Received: 10th August, 2007; Accepted: 11th March, 2008)
In this study the removal of Pb and Cu from kaolin and bulk clay by soil washing was investigated. Physicochemical analysis showed that both soils are low buffering soils. The soils were singly or doubly contaminated with Pb and Cu by spiking using a soil:liquid ratio of 10:1. Mineral acids (hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid), and chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA and oxalic acid) were used at various concentrations to extract the contaminants using a soil:solution ratio of 1:25. The removal of Pb and Cu was dependent on extractant concentration. Copper removal was consistently higher than that of Pb for all extracting solutions. Hydrochloric acid had higher removal efficiency than sulphuric acid in both soils. EDTA had greater removal efficiency than oxalic acid at all concentrations. Metal removal in doubly spiked soils was lower relative to singly spiked samples due to competitive desorption from clay surface, differential complexation or solubilization. Removal efficiencies increased in the order: sulphuric acid < hydrochloric acid < oxalic acid < EDTA. Contaminant removal was generally less than 50% implying that Pb and Cu were incompletely removed by batch extraction using these extractants. Sequential extraction using these extractants is recommended for enhanced metal removal.
FRACTIONATION OF POTASSIUM IN SOIL RECEIVING PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT
Philip O. Oviasogie1*, Aiyowie E. Aghimien2 and Chika L. Ndiokwere3
1,2 Chemistry Division, Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, P.M.B. 1030, Benin City, Nigeria. 3Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, Nigeria.
(Received: 12th January, 2008; Accepted: 20th March, 2008)
Palm oil mill effluent (POME) contains significantly high concentration of potassium (K) which is an essential macronutrient element. Since K, is highly labile, its amount and distribution in soil is very important especially in ascertaining the fertility status of the soil. Hence, in the present study, the levels and distribution of K in the water soluble, exchangeable, difficulty exchangeable, ‘fixed’ (reserve) and structural fractions were determined in soils receiving palm oil mill effluent and adjacent soils without the effluent. The results obtained showed that mean level of K in the soil containing POME was 272.70 mg/kg in the water soluble fraction and 349.44 mg/kg in the same fraction of the soil without the effluent. 533.50 and 530.28mg/kg K occurred in the exchangeable fraction of the POME soil and control samples respectively. The soil receiving the effluent had higher levels in the total K reserve fraction while 11.64 and 10.92 mg/kg K were determined in the structural K fraction of both the POME and control samples respectively. Furthermore, there were significant correlations between K in the water soluble and exchangeable fractions (r = 0.90; r = 0.79) of the soils with and without the POME respectively. The study showed that the high liability of K may have been responsible for the significant differences in the amount of K obtained in both soils while the POME did not have significant effect on the mineral or lattice form of K as exhibited in the value of K in the structural fraction.
CORRELATION OF SOME CRUDE OILS USING LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT GEOCHEMICAL MARKERS: A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGER DELTA.
P.N. Manilla* and O.M. Onyema
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
(Accepted: 30th March, 2008)
Crude oil samples from the Niger Delta were analyzed for geochemical markers. The America Petroleum Institute (API) gravity (23.62o, 37.15o, 44.53o, 25.50 o) of the samples showed different state of thermal maturity and was confirmed by the compound class. Hydrocarbons (C4-C19) ratios were obtained from the whole-oil gas chromatography to give the invariance ratio k1 and multivariate plots of the low molecular weight geochemical markers. These ratios separated the crude oils into two generic groups. Pristana/phytane ratios (3.18, 2.29, 2.06, 2.01) and isoprenoid/n-alkane ratios (Pr/n-C17 was 2.01, 1.37, 1.12, 1.26 while Ph/n-C18 0.66, 0.66, 0.59, 0.66) showed that one of the four crude oils were generated mainly by terrigenous organic matter input while the second group had a mixed marine and terrigenous organic matter input. Invariance ratio k1 and multivariate plots of some low molecular weight biomarker ratios showed three samples had positive correlation with one another and negative correlation with one sample. When these crude oil samples were correlated with samples from other study it was found that crude oil samples from the Eastern Niger Delta were correlated while those from Western Niger Delta showed better correlation among themselves than with the oil samples from the Eastern Niger Delta, indicating that crude oils from the same region are related
THE CONVERSION OF PROPENE TO OTHER USEFUL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri.
At atmospheric pressure, propene was reacted with 70% sulphuric acid at 60 – 70oC for 1 hr, followed by hydrolysis to give isopropanol which in turn was oxidized with chromic acid to acetone in 68.7% yield. Conversion of propene to 1,2-dibromopropane by reaction with Br2 at atmospheric pressure was practically quantitative.
Back to top