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News & Info 2011 Annual Conference CSN Journal

 

Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria

   JCSN, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2008

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Contents

Sorption of lead (II) from aqueous solutions using chemically modified and unmodified Dioscorea alata (Yam) and Manihot esculenta (Cassava) peels

B.O. Opeolu, O. Bamgbose, T.A. Arowolo and M.T.Adetunji

 

1

Mobility profile of heavy metals in selected automobile workshops in Anambra State, Nigeria

J.O. Ogbuagu, M. Orji and A.S. Ogbuagu

11

Evaluation of physicochemical and sensory properties of soybean-sweet potato supplementary foods

P.I. Akubor 

15

Colorimetric determination of mebendazole using chloranilic acid

 U. Ajali, B. Ezema and P.O. Ukoha 

23

Baseline heavy metals concentration in river sediments within Okitipupa Southeast belt of the Nigerian bituminous sand field

Ademola F. Aiyesanmi 

29

Temporal and spatial variations of benzene in the atmosphere

E.G. Olumayede, J.M. Okuo, E.E. Ukpebor and A. P. Oviawe 

42

Chelation of zinc (II) metal ion from waste water with biopolymeric chitosan ligand produced from snail shell

S. Adewuyi, T.F. Akinhanmi, E.O. Taiwo and A. A. Adeyemi  

46

Enhanced metal adsorption by groundnut husks modified with citric acid

M.E. Chukwuedo and F.E. Okiemen 

50

The fluorides content of drinking water samples from Ndokwa Area, South - South Nigeria

S.H.O. Egboh and E.M. Emeshili  

54

Elemental analysis of some cocoyam species marked in South-Esthern part of Nigeria

P.C. Njoku, A.A. Ayuk and O.N. Egwim 

62

Synthesis of thiamine analogues for use as internal standards in the chromatographic assay of thiamine and its phosphorylated metabolites

Ndoni, Solomon Ameniyegba 

65

Monitoring the possible effect of garlic additive on the properties of natural rubber vulcanzite

E.G. Olumayede and B.F. Adeosun 

70

Evaluation of corn shealth, corn cob and plantain peels as potential alkali sources for soap production

S.O. Okoh, M.O. Oresanya, F. Ezebor, S. A. Ajani and A.S. Ahmed 

79

Comparative study on the use of bronsted and lewis acids as dextrinization catalysts for sorghum starch. 1: HCl and FeCl3

Ikechukwu D. Anyaogu  and Paul M. Ejikeme  

83

Heavy metal concentrations in urban water-wells: A case study of owerri municipal

Chidi Edbert Duru, Victor Obinna Njoku and Chidi Obi 

89

Dissolving pulp from corn husk via peroxyacetic acid delignification: effects of process time and temperature

Ikechukwu D. Anyaogu and Paul M. Ejikeme 

94

Effect of storage temperature on rancidity in some commercial vegetable oils sold in Idah town, Kogi State

 P.I. Akubor 

100

Equilibrium studies of the reaction of 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) with the oxyhaemoglobin derivative of pigeon haemoglobin

O.V. Akpoveta and S.A. Osakwe 

105

Fractionation of Ni and V in wetland soils and their distribution in tissues of the oil palm

P.O. Oviasogie, A.E. Aghimien and C.L. Ndiokwere 

113

Solvent extraction of nigerian bitumen samples and the trace metal analysis of the produce water

H.O. Ogunsuyi, K.O. Ipinmoroti and O.O. Ajayi 

124

Bleaching of red palm oil by local kaolin and activated charcoal in comparison with imported fuller’s earth

Atu Ausaji Ayuka and Victor Obi Njokub,* 

130

Light fastness of natural dyes from Danta (Nesogordoia papaverifera) and Elem (Nimbodia nivea) on cotton, nylon 66 and acrylic fabrics

J. O. Otutu 

135

Sequential fractionation of cadmium, copper, lead and chromium in soils around municipal solid waste dumps in Agbor, Nigeria

S.A. Osakwe and F.  Egharevba 

139

Levels of heavy metals in Uca pugilator and Drepane africana from Ase River, South-South Nigeria

E.M. Emeshili and S.H.O. Egboh  

148

Studies on the tannins of breadfruit (Treculia africana) husks: Extraction and characterization

P.O. Ukoha, P. M. Ejikeme and C.C. Maju 

152

Proximate analysis of three popular local varieties of rice

M.E. Chukwuedo and A. Odia 

157

Rheological properties and state of cure of natural rubber compounded with blend of carbonized melon seed shell and carbon black

J.U. Iyasele and F.E. Okieimen 

162

Air quality assessment in a crude oil producing community with a flow station

S.A. Uzoekwe, E.E. Ukpebor and S.I. Ahonkhai 

168

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SORPTION OF LEAD (II) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING CHEMICALLY MODIFIED AND UNMODIFIED Dioscorea alata (Yam) and Manihot esculenta (Cassava) PEELS

 

B.O. Opeolu1, O. Bamgbose*1, T.A. Arowolo1 and M.T.Adetunji2,

1Department of Environmental Management & Toxicology, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

2 Department of Soil Science and Land Management, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

(Received: 20th January, 2008; Accepted: 16th April, 2008)

 

Abstract

This study evaluated the potential of D. alata and M.esculenta peels to remove lead (Pb2+) from aqueous solutions and industrial wastewaters. Effects of pH, contact time, agitation, adsorbate concentration, adsorbent weight and adsorbent modification were assessed.  The experimental data obtained were analyzed in terms of Freundlich isotherms. Optimal adsorption for both peels was attained at pH 5, adsorbent weight of 16mgL-1 and a contact time of 2h. Under agitation at 150rpm, adsorption was optimal at 30 min for both residues. Adsorption rate constants for the unmodified yam and cassava biomass were 7.3 x 10-2L/min and 7.2 x 10-2L/min respectively. Pb2+ removal from battery and paint effluents for yam peels were 99.9% and 79.4% respectively at 2h contact time; corresponding values for cassava peel were 82.2% and 99.9%.  Maximum sorption (100%) was however achieved for both effluents with yam peel when agitated for 30min at 150rpm while cassava peel achieved 86.2% and 100% sorption under similar conditions. Acid and alkaline modification of yam biomass did not enhance adsorption, more especially, for the effluents. However, alkaline modification of cassava peel increased adsorption.  Percentage desorption was between 89.8 and 97.9 for yam peel while the values ranged between 56.6 and 99.2 for cassava peel. Characterization of the modified and unmodified biomass suggests a combination of physio-sorption and chemisorption mechanisms. The study concludes that unmodified yam and cassava peels are suitable for application in industrial wastewater remediation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

MOBILITY PROFILE OF HEAVY METALS IN SELECTED AUTOMOBILE WORKSHOPS IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

 

J.O. Ogbuagu, M. Orji and A.S. Ogbuagu

Chemical Technology Unit, Production Technology Department,

Microbiology Department, Nnamdi Azikwe University Awka

(Received: 30th August, 2007; Accepted: 15th May, 2008)

 

Abstract 

In this research work, samples of soils were collected at different depths from mechanic workshops located at Onitsha, Nnewi and Awka metropolis in Anambra State and analyzed for the heavy metal levels using a Bulk VGP 210 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed mean levels of 0.943mg/g for lead; 0.2574mg/g for Zn; 0.03858mg/g for Mg; 1.3640mg for Co; 2.1488mg.g for Ca; 1.121mg/g for Cu and 0.065mg.g for Cr. These results indicate various levels of soil pollution by heavy metals in these areas and call for concerns because of the health implication.

 

 

 

 

 

EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOYBEAN-SWEET POTATO SUPPLEMENTARY FOODS

 

P.I. Akubor

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1037, Bida

(Received: 30th August, 2007; Accepted: 15th May, 2008)

 

Abstract

Supplementary foods were prepared from blends of raw (untreated) and fermented sweet potato flours, raw, fermented and germinated soybean flours. The chemical, functional and sensory properties of the supplementary foods were evaluated. The protein contents of raw soybean flour (RSBF) and raw sweet potato flour (RSPF) were 52 and 7%, respectively. Fermentation decreased the protein content of raw soybean flour (SBF) but improved that of sweet potato flour. Germination also decreased the protein content of RSBF. The protein contents of the blends ranged between 15.2 and 19.5%. The ash contents of the blends varied from 1.3 to 3.3%. The bulk density of RSPF and RSBF were 0.76 and 0.63 g/cm3; respectively and varied from 0.73-0.81 g/cm3 for the blends. All the flour samples had low value for hygroscopicity and values ranged from 0.33-5.07%. The particle density of RSBF and RSPF were 1g/cm3 and ranged from 0.95 to 1 g/cm3 for the blends. The water absorption capacity (WAC) of RSBF was 2-fold that of RSPF. Fermentation decreased the WAC of both RSPF and RSBF. The WAC of the blends varied from 94 to 98%. The reconstitution index of the blends ranged between 60 and 98ml. Sensory evaluation showed there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in colour among the supplementary foods. However, the sensory scores for texture and flavour differed significantly among the supplementary foods (P<0.05). The overall acceptability scores for the blends of RSPF and RSBF and germinated soybean flour (GSBF), FSPF and RSBF were higher than those of the other blends. All the supplementary foods were generally accepted by the panelists

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF MEBENDAZOLE USING CHLORANILIC ACID

 

 

U. Ajali1, B. Ezema2 and P.O. Ukoha2

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State.

(Received: 15th January, 2008; Accepted: 2nd June, 2008)

 

Abstract

 

 

Spectrophotometric analysis of mebendazole-chloranilic acid complex was studied. Stable and instantaneous purple complex was formed on mixing mebendazole solution with chloranilic acid in dioxan at ambient temperature. The Job's plot of continuous variation method indicated a 1.1 stoichiometry for the interaction and the product exhibited maximum absorption band at 500 nm. The complexation attained equilibrium after 30min from time of mixing and was found to be stable-over a period of 2.5 h after which marked reduction was observed as there was decrease in absorbance. Beer's Law was obeyed over the concentration range of 3.4 x 10-5 -2.30 x 10-2 molL-1. The molar absorptivity was 1.43x10-4Lmol-1cm-1. The mean percentage recovery for assayed mebendazole tablet (vitameb ®) was 97.35%.

 

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BASELINE HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATION IN RIVER SEDIMENTS WITHIN OKITIPUPA SOUTHEAST BELT OF THE NIGERIAN BITUMINOUS SAND FIELD

 

Ademola F. Aiyesanmi

Chemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Nigeria.

(Received: 31st March, 2008; Accepted: 2nd June, 2008)

 

Abstract

Sediment samples from the course of four major rivers within the Okitipupa southeast belt of the Nigerian bituminous sand field were taken over three years and analysed for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn using the atomic absorption spectroscopic method. Some specific physico-chemical characteristics, such as sediment particle size, pH and organic carbon content, which are known to influence the interactions and dynamics of metals within the sediment matrix, were also determined. Significant difference (p<0.05) in Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and V levels for dry and wet seasons’ results was recorded with significant seasonal variation in Pb and V concentrations. Different levels of variability in metal concentrations among the sampling points were also revealed in the calculated coefficient of variation, which ranged between 38.03% in As and 260.67% in Hg. The concentration ranges of metal (in mg/kg of dry sediment) measured were in the order of Fe(70.62 – 799.97) > Ni(15.48 – 133.47) > Cu(0.33 – 25.94) > Mn(0.88 – 15.72) > As(1.01 – 9.04) > V(nd – 2.59) > Cr(0.13 – 2.40) > Pb(0.08 – 2.18) > Hg(nd – 1.51) > Ba(0.09 – 1.19) > Zn(0.05 – 0.79 > Cd(nd – 0.08). The significant correlation (p<0.05), which, however, exists between some of the metals, suggests that they are more of lithological or crustal origin. Since bitumen exploitation is yet to commence in the area these data could serve as baseline information for future environmental performance evaluation of bitumen exploration and production processes.

 

 

 

 

 

TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF BENZENE IN THE ATMOSPHERE

 

E.G. Olumayede1, J.M. Okuo*2, E.E. Ukpebor2 and A. P. Oviawe2

1Chemistry Unit, LEM Department, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State

2Air Pollution Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

(Received: 2nd February, 2008; Accepted: 4th June, 2008)

 

Abstract

The quantification of benzene in the ambient air of cities is important due to its carcinogenic effects in human’s health.  Temporal and spatial variations of benzene distribution in Benin City have been assessed.  Passive sampling approach (Diffusion tubes from Drager Safety, Lübeck, Germany) was adopted in this study. The samplers were exposed at a height of about 1.5m at the sampling sites and seven days sampling duration was observed.  Measurement was done between February and July, 2007.  One way analysis of variance (Anova) revealed significance difference (P < 0.01) in the spatial distribution of this carcinogens. Temporal variations were also significant, with higher benzene values measured in dry season.  Quite remarkably, the European Union threshold benzene limit of 5mgm-3 was complied with at the sampling sites.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHELATION OF ZINC (II) METAL ION FROM WASTE WATER WITH BIOPOLYMERIC CHITOSAN LIGAND PRODUCED FROM SNAIL SHELL

 

S. Adewuyi, T.F. Akinhanmi, E.O. Taiwo and A. A. Adeyemi

Chemistry Department, University of Agriculture Abeokuta, P M B 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

(Received: 10th April, 2008; Accepted: 6th June, 2008)

 

Abstract

A new bioligand chitin was extracted from snail shell and employed for the production of high purity and porous chitosan. The chitin and chitosan were analysed using IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis to show the efficiency of N-deacetylation. The prepared chitosan was investigated as a chelating material for zinc (II) metal ion from ZnO waste water by equilibrium method. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to determine the milligram of chelated Zn (II) ion per gram of ligand molecule. At pH 4.5, the maximum chelation capacity was 6.5 x 106 mg of zinc per gram of chitosan over 24 hrs of the experimental duration.

 

 

 

 

 

ENHANCED METAL ADSORPTION BY GROUNDNUT HUSKS MODIFIED WITH CITRIC ACID

 

M.E. Chukwuedoa* and F.E. Okiemenb

aDepartment of Chemistry, Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma, Edo State

bUniversity of Benin, Department of Chemistry & Centre for Biomaterials Research, Benin City

(Received: 6th April, 2008; Accepted: 10th October 2008)

 

Abstract

A method was developed to enhance metal ion adsorption of groundnut husks for wastewater treatment. Groundnut Husk were extracted with 0.1M NaOH and modified by treatment with 0.6M citric acid solution at 290C. Batch adsorption studies of Cd2+, Pb2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous solution were carried out at ambient temperature. The effects of concentration and time on the metal ions uptake were investigated.  The sorption data fitted Langmuir isotherm equation. The maximum adsorption capacities (xm) of the three metal ions were 5.49mgg-1,9.11mgg-1 and 16.34mgg-1 respectively. Base – extraction before citric acid modification of husks resulted in appreciable increase in the amount of cadmium and lead ions adsorbed and slight increase in the amount of nickel ion adsorbed. Citric acid modification of groundnut husks greatly enhanced metal ions removal which makes the citric acid modified groundnut husks suitable for metal ions removal from wastewater.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE FLUORIDES CONTENT OF DRINKING WATER SAMPLES FROM NDOKWA AREA, SOUTH - SOUTH NIGERIA.

 

S.H.O. Egboh and E.M. Emeshili

Chemistry Department, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

(Received: 23rd October, 2007; Accepted: 11th June, 2008)

 

Abstract

Dental caries and fluorosis have been observed as major adverse effects of the insufficient or excess presence of fluorides in drinking water and general diets of man. Fluoride concentrations present in the drinking water sources from Ndokwa area were studied and analysis of samples done using Standard Methods according to American Public Health Association. Values obtained is 0.15 ± 0.002mgL-1 in surface waters while underground water shows values of 0.139 ± 0.010 mgL-1. These values falls below the 1.5 mgL-1 optimum guideline expected of drinking water sources. This study therefore calls on all tiers of government and relevant agencies on the need for the fluoridation of the water supplies to the Ndokwa communities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SOME COCOYAM SPECIES MARKED IN SOUTH-ESTHERN PART OF NIGERIA

 

P.C. Njoku, A.A. Ayuk and O.N. Egwim

Department of Chemistry Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

(Received: 15th January, 2007; Accepted: 11th June, 2008)

 

Abstract

The three edible cocoyam species (Xanthasoma, Colocasia, and Grant Taro were analyzed for their oxalate contents and level of some elements using unicam 919 absorption spectrophotometer. The oxalate content obtained were 0.378µg/g for Xanthasoma Sagittifolium (Ede Uhie), 0.252µg/g for colocasia esculenta (Ede Ocha) and 0.433µg/g for Gaint Taro (Ede Okoriko). The results obtained showed that Xanthasoma sagittifolium specie contained 14.00µg/g of Cu, 60.00µg/g of Fe, 6.25µg/g of As; 0.85µg/g of Be, 0.20µg/g of Hg and 3.33µg/g of Pb. Ni, Cd, Mn and Zn were not detected. The colocasia esculenta specie contained 22.00µg/g of Cu; 65.00µg/g for Fe, 12.50µg/g of As, 1.70µg/g of Be, 0.10µg/g of Hg, 6.00µg/g of Mn; 94.50µg/g of Zn and 3.36µg/g of Pb. Ni, and Cd were not detected. The Gaint tairo specie contained 18.0µg/g of cu, 55.0µg/g of Fe, 18.75µg/g of As, 0.85µg/g of Hg and 10.00µg/g of Pb. Ni, Cd, Mn and Zn were again not detected. Results show that the Giant tairo specie contain the highest level of oxalate which makes it least edible than other species.

 

 

 

 

 

 

SYNTHESIS OF THIAMINE ANALOGUES FOR USE AS INTERNAL STANDARDS IN THE CHROMATOGRAPHIC ASSAY OF THIAMINE AND ITS PHOSPHORYLATED METABOLITES

 

Ndoni, Solomon Ameniyegba

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, UK

(Received: 16th March, 2008; Accepted: 13th June, 2008)

 

Abstract

Internal standards are very useful in high performance liquid chromatographic methods, as it gives a fair comparison of elution time and peak. For the determination of thiamine and its phosphorylated metabolites, an internal standard which has the properties and structure closely similar to thiamine is required. Chloroethylthiamine and O-acetylthiamine meets this criterion. They were prepared successfully, and applied to the assay of thiamine and its metabolites. Chloroethylthiamine in the HPLC analysis gave a single peak of retention time 19.07 min, eluting last as a thiochrome derivative from the column (4 μm ODS column, 3.9 x 150 mm) with a pre-column sentry guard (3.9 x 20 mm). O-Acetylthiamine was degraded to thiamine in the column.  The NMR and ES-MS chromatograph were as expected. The yield for O-acetylthiamine however, was low, but was enough for the application to the column.

 

 

 

 

 

 

MONITORING THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF GARLIC ADDITIVE ON THE PROPERTIES OF NATURAL RUBBER VULCANZITE

 

E.G. Olumayede1*and B.F. Adeosun2

1Chemistry Uint, Liberal & Extra Mural Studies Dept., Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P.M.B 1019 Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

2 Science Tech. Dept., Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 5351, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

(Received: 16th March, 2008; Accepted: 13th June, 2008)

 

Abstract

The effects of garlic additive and part replacement of sulphur in the conventional curative systems (mercapto benzothiazole – sulphur) MBT/S, (cyclohexyl benzothiazole sulphenamide-sulphur) CBS/S, and semi 0 EV on the mechanical and cure properties of natural rubber compound have been studied. Results show that the addition of garlic powder at content less or equal to 6pphr to the conventional MBT/S mix improves the tensile strength of natural rubber compound. Part replacement of sulphur with garlic powder in the conventional MBT/S system in which sulphur has been replaced with garlic up to a level of 1.5pphr show comparable reversion resistance, cure rate index and scorch resistance to the conventional MBT/S systems containing less or equal to 6pphr garlic. 

Addition of 2pphr garlic powder to semi-EV system improves tensile strength, while tensile strength depress on the addition of 2pphr garlic powder to the CBS/S system. It appear advantageous therefore to include garlic powder in the corresponding formulation of natural rubber compound.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EVALUATION OF CORN SHEALTH, CORN COB AND PLANTAIN PEELS AS POTENTIAL ALKALI SOURCES FOR SOAP PRODUCTION

 

S.O. Okoh, M.O. Oresanya, F. Ezebor, S. A. Ajani and A.S. Ahmed

Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria

(Received: 7th November, 2007; Accepted: 16th June, 2008)

 

 

Abstract

Corn sheath, corn cob, peels of ripe and unripe Plantain which are some of the common agro-wastes in Nigeria were collected from markets at Oshodi, Oke-Arin ,Alimosho and Mushin in Lagos state. They were sun dried and ashed at 150o C.  Their suitability as alkali source for soap production was evaluated.

Chemical analysis showed that the liquid extracts of these different agricultural wastes contain varying quantities of magnesium, potassium and sodium compounds that can be used for soap production.

The common active ingredients in the four agro wastes were Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) 2.76 ± 0.04% for corn sheaths, 2.56±0.01 for corn cobs 1.67±0.03% for unripe plantain peels and potassium hydroxide (KOH) 1.60 ±  0.03% for corn sheaths and 0.07 ± 0.04% for unripe plantain peels.

 

 

 

 

 

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE USE OF BRONSTED AND LEWIS ACIDS AS DEXTRINIZATION CATALYSTS FOR SORGHUM STARCH. 1: HCl and FeCl3

 

Ikechukwu D. Anyaogu a and Paul M. Ejikeme*

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

(Received: 14th April, 2008; Accepted: 19th June, 2008)

 

 

Abstract

Dextrinization of starch from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grains were effected with varying quantities of HCl (Bronsted acid) and FeCl3 (Lewis acid) at 1100C for 30min. The catalysts load varied from 0.004-0.005mmole per gram of starch. The resulting dextrins were used to formulate adhesives tackified with KOH. The adhesives were evaluated for viscosity, drying time and peel strength. Results indicate that FeCl3 catalysed dextrins generally gave adhesives which have superior properties with respect to flow and strength while the HCl catalysed types gave faster drying adhesives. The load levels of catalysts required for optimum adhesive performance was 0.004mmole HCl and 0.002mmole FeCl3. At the optimal load of catalysts, the dextrins obtained gave adhesives that had relative viscosities of 3.37 and 9.4; set-to-touch times of 7 and 12min; and relative peel strength of 320 and 430g for HCl and FeCl3 catalysed dextrins respectively.

 

 

 

 

 

HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN WATER-WELLS: A CASE STUDY OF OWERRI MUNICIPAL

 

Chidi Edbert Duru 1*, Victor Obinna Njoku 2 and Chidi Obi 3

1 Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State.

2 Department of Chemistry Imo State University, Owerri, P.M.B. 2000, Owerri Imo State.

3 Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, River State.

(Received: 26th March, 2008; Accepted: 19th June, 2008)

 

Abstract

Heavy metal concentrations in water-wells were determined in six areas within Owerri municipal using an Atomic Absorption/Emission Spectrophotometer. The average concentrations (mg/L) of the heavy metals Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively were: Ugwu-Orji Layout:- 0.08, <0.04, <0.01, <0.01 and 0.24; New Market Layout:- 0.04, <0.01, <0.01, <0.01 and 0.06; Prefab/Uratta Estate:- 0.07, <0.01, <0.01, <0.01 and 0.10; World Bank Housing Estate:- 0.06, <0.01, <0.01, <0.01 and 0.05; Ikenegbu Layout:- 0.05, <0.01, <0.01, <0.01 and 0.06; Amakohia/Akwakuma Layout:- 0.16, <0.01, <0.01, <0.01 and 0.16. The results obtained showed that heavy metal concentrations were below the World Health Organisation (WHO) limits for drinking water quality, and are indicative of the near zero pollution level of groundwater in these areas investigated.

 

 

 

 

 

DISSOLVING PULP FROM CORN HUSK VIA PEROXYACETIC ACID DELIGNIFICATION: EFFECTS OF PROCESS TIME AND TEMPERATURE

 

Ikechukwu D. Anyaogua and Paul M. Ejikeme*

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

a Present Address: Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, PMB 001 Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

       E-mail: ikeanyaogu@yahoo.com

  (Received: 17th March, 2008; Accepted: 19th June, 2008)

 

Abstract

Peroxyacetic acid delignification of corn husk was carried out. Two series of pulps were obtained through two sets of multilevel experiments. The first series of pulps were obtained with cooking temperature fixed at 900C while cooking time was varied at 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min. In the second series, setting the cooking time at 30 min. and varying the temperature at 50, 60, 70, 80, and 900C obtained pulps. The pulps obtained in the first series had yield, alpha-cellulose content, kappa number, and lignin content in the ranges of 34-20%, 86%, 3.9-1.5, and 0.59-0.247%, respectively, while the same parameters in the second series ranged as follows: 38-20%, 86-93%, 10.9-3.1, and 1.64-0.23%, respectively. A general decrease in the yield, kappa number, and lignin content of pulp was observed with increase in cooking time for both series. The alpha-cellulose content remained constant at 86% for the first series, and a maximum of 93% obtained at 60-700C in the second series. Pulps obtained in both series gave good quality cellulose nitrate (CN) and cellulose acetate (CA).

 

 

 

 

 

 

EFFECT OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON RANCIDITY IN SOME COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE OILS SOLD IN IDAH TOWN, KOGI STATE

 

P.I. Akubor

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1037, Bida

(Received: 5h November, 2007; Accepted: 24h June, 2008)

                                  

Abstract

Samples of five commercial vegetable oils were selected randomly from various locations in Idah township, Kogi state. Some portions of the oil samples were cooled to 100C and 200C, respectively in a refrigerator. The other portions were heated in aluminum pot over stove fire to 300C, 400C and 500C, respectively. The peroxide values (PV) and acid values (AV) of all the treated samples were determined. The iodine values of the untreated samples (control) were also determined. The results showed that at 100C, life vegetable oil (LVO), Avop vegetable oil (AVOP), soybean oil (SBO), corn oil (CNO) and groundnut (GNO) contained 2, 3, 10, 13 and 8meq/kg peroxide values (PV). The PV of the oil samples increased steadily with increase in temperature. For every increase in temperature, CNO had higher PV (13-22meq/kg), than the other oils (2-17.5meq/kg). This was closely followed by SBO (10-17.5meq/kg) and then GNO (8-15meq/kg). The LVO (2-8meq/kg) and AVOP (3-9meq/kg) were more stable at all the temperatures evaluated than the other oils. The stability of the vegetable oils was related to the iodine values of the oils, values being 50, 54, 134, 127 and 94 for LVO, AVOP, SBO, CNO and GNO respectively. The vegetable oils had low acid values which ranged from 1.0-2.5mgKOH/g.     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EQUILIBRIUM STUDIES OF THE REACTION OF 5,5'-DITHIOBIS

(2-NITROBENZOIC ACID) WITH THE OXYHAEMOGLOBIN DERIVATIVE OF PIGEON HAEMOGLOBIN

 

O.V. Akpoveta1 and S.A. Osakwe2*

1Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

(Received: 4th July, 2007; Accepted: 30th June, 2008)

 

Abstract

Equilibrium constant (Keq) for the reaction of the oxyhaemoglobin derivative of pigeon haemoglobin with 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) [DTNB] was determined experimentally at various pH values (pH 5.7 to pH 9.0). The study was carried out with the aid of a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The Apparent Second order forward rate constant (KF) for this reaction has previously been determined as a function of pH. However, the determination of the Apparent Second order reverse rate constant (Kr) for this reaction is not feasible from kinetic experiment. Therefore, a knowledge of the equilibrium constant will enable the determination of the Apparent Second order reverse rate constant (Kr) as a function of pH. The equilibrium constant (Keq) was calculated on the basis of an equation relating Keq to the concentrations of the species involved in the reaction. The pH dependence of Kr was found to be simple and increased by almost three orders of magnitude between pH 5.7 and 9.0 for the oxyhaemoglobin derivative reaction with D.T.N.B. The results show that the reactivity of Cys F9(93)β sulphydryl group with DTNB is faster than that of Cys B5(23)β since its reaction gave higher values of Kr over the entire pH range.

 

 

 

 

 

 

FRACTIONATION OF Ni AND V IN WETLAND SOILS AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN TISSUES OF THE OIL PALM

 

P.O. Oviasogie*1, A.E. Aghimien2 and C.L. Ndiokwere3

1,2 Chemistry Division, Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR), P.M.B., 1030, Benin City, Nigeria

3 Chemistry Department, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria

 (Accepted: 2nd July, 2008)

 

Abstract

In the present study, the concentration of Ni and V in their various fractions (soluble, exchangeable, carbonate, plant available, bound to Mn-oxide, bound to amorphous Fe-oxide, bound to crystalline Fe-oxide, organic and residual) in the wetland soils of the Niger delta region were determined using a modified chemical fractionation method.  Also assessed were the amount of these metals in various tissues (leaves, mesocarp, endocarp and endosperm of the ripened fruits) of oil palms of ages 2 – 10, 15-32 and >60 years.  From the results obtained, a weighed mean of 6.13 mg/kg Ni was obtained in the carbonate fraction while 4.64 mg/kg was detected in the ‘plant available’ fraction.  There were high variations in the amounts of Ni associated with the different fractions in the soil horizons.  Ni was not detected in the tissues of palm of 2 – 10 and 15 – 32 years respectively.  However, between 0.1-0.6 mg/kg Ni was detected in the palms >60 years old.  Similarly, 4.47 and 1.43 mg/kg weighted mean of V were obtained in the exchangeable and ‘plant available’ fractions respectively.  Vanadium was not detected in the various tissues of the palms irrespective of their age.  From the study conducted, it can be inferred that the varied binding associations between Ni and V in the different fractions and their concentrations in the tissues of the palm suggest that bioaccumulation does not necessarily or explicitly indicate bio-availability. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NIGERIAN BITUMEN SAMPLES AND THE TRACE METAL ANALYSIS OF THE PRODUCE WATER

 

H.O. Ogunsuyi, K.O. Ipinmoroti and O.O. Ajayi

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M. B. 704, Akure, Nigeria

(Received: 15th June, 2008; Accepted: 10th July, 2008)

 

Abstract

Solvent extraction involving Soxhlet and Dean and Stack procedures were employed in the extraction of bitumen samples from three bitumen deposits in Odigbo Local Government area of Ondo - State. The samples were extracted differently with toluene and chloroform solvents. Optimum yields of bitumen were obtained with toluene solvent using soxhlet extraction and these amounted to 92.50%, 88.50% and 46.75% for borehole, near – surface and tar sand respectively compared to their corresponding lower yields of 87.56%, 87.13% and 43.00% with chloroform solvent under this same extraction procedure. On the other hand, Dean and Stack procedure with toluene yielded 90.25% for borehole; 85.13% for near - surface and 44.38% for tar sand sample, these yields were comparatively lower than their respective yields of 82.25%, 78.75% and 40.62% obtained with chloroform.With either procedure toluene was a better solvent for optimum yield. Soxhlet extraction procedure did not involve any co-extracted water; however, appreciable amount was obtained with Dean and Stack method. The yields of the co – extracted water from this method were comparable for the two solvents, with values ranging between 24.14 and 24.32% for borehole sample, 25.21 - 26.79% for near surface and 4.83 – 4.94% for tar sand. Trace  metals analysis conducted on the  produce - water associated with the borehole and near – surface bitumen showed that the concentrations at which most of the metals determined were present could constitute environmental pollution during exploitation of the mineral.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BLEACHING OF RED PALM OIL BY LOCAL KAOLIN AND ACTIVATED CHARCOAL IN COMPARISON WITH IMPORTED FULLER’S EARTH

 

Atu Ausaji Ayuka and Victor Obi Njokub,*

aDepartment of Chemistry, School of Science, Federal University of Technology ,P.M.B. 1526 Owerri, Nigeria

bDepartment of Chemistry, Imo State University, P.M.B. 2000 Owerri, Nigeria

(Received: 18th January, 2008; Accepted: 10th July, 2008)

 

Abstract

The bleaching of red palm oil by local kaolin clay, activated charcoal and a 1:1 mixture of kaolin and activated charcoal were studied in comparison with two commercial brands of fuller’s earth. The percent colour reduction of red palm oil was monitored spectrophotometrically while the free fatty acid (FFA) removal was determined titrimetrically. Kaolin alone and the 1:1 mixture of kaolin and activated charcoal were found to be effective in both colour and FFA removal and compared favourably with commercial fuller’s earth. Local kaolin alone gave 65.20 % maximum colour reduction while the 1:1 mixture of local kaolin and activated charcoal showed 62.74 % maximum colour reduction. This is comparable to 62.94 and 71.99 % in Fulmont and Tonsil bleaching earths respectively. The bleaching performance of activated charcoal was poor with a maximum colour reduction of 8.12 %. The FFA content of the unbleached palm oil was determined to be 31 %. The percent FFA removal from oil bleached with various bleaching earths as a function of the quantity of bleaching earth showed that the percent FFA removal increased with the quantity of bleaching earth. The percent FFA removal achieved with kaolin and 1:1 mixture of kaolin and activated charcoal also were comparable to those of the commercial fuller’s earth. Charcoal alone again exhibited a poor performance in terms of FFA removal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIGHT FASTNESS OF NATURAL DYES FROM DANTA (Nesogordoia papaverifera) AND ELEM (Nimbodia nivea) ON COTTON, NYLON 66 AND ACRYLIC FABRICS

 

J. O. Otutu

Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, P.M.B. 1, Abraka, Delta State

(Received: 2nd February, 2008; Accepted: 14th July, 2007)

 

Abstract

Cotton nylon 66 and acrylic fabrics were dyed with natural dyes extracted from Danta plant (Nesogordonia papaverifera) and Elem plant (Nimbodia nivea). Light and wash fastness of the dyed samples were studied. Pre treatment with metallic salts and dyeing of pre treated samples was also studied. The dyeing properties of the dyes on cotton (a natural fibre) were compared with those of nylon and acrylic (synthetic fibres).  The results of the study show that mordanting generally improve light and wash fastness.  It also showed that the danta derived dye has affinity for nylon and acrylic fibres while the elem derived dye has affinity for cotton fibre.

 

 

 

 

 

 

SEQUENTIAL FRACTIONATION OF CADMIUM, COPPER, LEAD AND CHROMIUM IN SOILS AROUND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DUMPS IN AGBOR, NIGERIA

 

S.A. Osakwea* and F.  Egharevbab

aDepartment of Chemistry, Delta State University, Abraka

bDepartment of Chemistry, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma

(Received: 7th July, 2008; Accepted: 5th August, 2008)

 

 

Abstract

Speciation patterns of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Cr) in the soil profiles were investigated using Tessier’s five steps sequential extraction technique, in order to evaluate their potential bioavailability and degree of contamination. The metal concentrations in the four investigated soils fit in the typical ranges for unpolluted soils. The speciation results revealed that Cd was predominantly associated with Fe-Mn oxide fraction, Cu with organic fraction while Pb and Cr were associated with residual fraction. Significant amounts of Pb and Cr were found on carbonate fraction. Mobility factors were calculated and their values are in the range of 13.89 to 41.7, indicating low mobility and bioavailability of the metals studied. The mobility factors for the metals in all the sites follow the order Cd > Pb > Cr > Cu. The results from the speciation patterns observed in this study indicate that the metals are not readily available for plants uptake.

 

 

 

 

 

LEVELS OF HEAVY METALS IN Uca pugilator AND Drepane africana FROM ASE RIVER, SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA

 

E.M. Emeshili* and S.H.O. Egboh

*Examination and Standards, Ministry of Education, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria

Chemistry Department, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

(Received: 21st November, 2007; Accepted: 8th August, 2008)

 

Abstract

Levels of heavy metals accumulation in selected fauna were studied using standard methods. Uca pugilator and Drepane africana were used as bioaccumulative indicators. Result showed heavy metals concentration in the following order; Fe>Cu>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cr>Cd and Fe>Cu>Zn>Mn>Cr>Pb>Cd in the two organisms respectively. The bioaccumulation factor follow the order Mn>Zn>Fe>Cu>Cr>Pb>Cd for Uca pugilator while Drepane africana showed an order of Zn>Mn>Fe>Cu>Cr>Pb>Cd. These two organisms are thus useful indicators for the monitoring of Zinc and Manganese.

 

 

 

 

 

 

STUDIES ON THE TANNINS OF BREADFRUIT (Treculia africana) HUSKS: EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION

 

P.O. Ukoha*, P. M. Ejikeme* and C.C. Maju+

*Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu     State, Nigeria.

+Department of Leather and Leather Products, Federal College of Chemical and Leather Technology, Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria

(Received: 19th June, 2008; Accepted: 13th August, 2008)

 

Abstract

70% aqueous acetone extract of breadfruit husks was concentrated to obtain the reddish brown solid tannins. Qualitative tests, including one and two-dimensional paper chromatography ascertained the tannins to be of condensed type (catechin). Ultraviolet and Infra red spectra of the extract confirmed the presence of polyphenols. The paper chromatography ran with n-butanol-glacial-acetic acid-water (4:1:5), Toluene- acetic acid–water (4:1:5), conc. HCl-acetic-acid-water (4:1:5), as well as 90% formic acid-3MHCl (1:1) gave retardation factors which indicated the presence of cyanidin and catechin in the tannins.

 

 

 

 

 

PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF THREE POPULAR LOCAL VARIETIES OF RICE

 

M.E. Chukwuedoa* and A. Odiab

a, bDepartment of Chemistry, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

(Received: 4th May, 2008; Accepted: 18th August, 2008)

 

Abstract

Rice is one of the most popular cereals in the world and its popularity has been ascribed to its carbohydrate content which is up to 84% and even higher in some cases. Proximate analysis of three local varieties of rice, namely; Ekpoma long grain, Ekpoma short grain and lllushi grain were determined. The overall analysis of the total carbohydrate, soluble carbohydrate, fibre, crude protein, ash and dry matter contents respectively were found to be significantly (P<0.05) different. The effect of par boiling paddy before milling on the nutrient composition was also determined. The results obtained were compared with the United Kingdom rice standard and it was observed that the protein, fibre, ash and carbohydrate (both soluble and total) contents of the par boiled rice were higher than the raw rice but compared favourably with the standard one.

 

RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND STATE OF CURE OF NATURAL RUBBER COMPOUNDED WITH BLEND OF CARBONIZED MELON SEED SHELL AND CARBON BLACK

 

J.U. Iyasele* and F.E. Okieimen

Agricultural waste research laboratory, University of Benin, Benin City

 

Abstract

Carbonized melon seed shell (CMSS) was prepared by burning melon seed shell at 350OC in the absence of air, powdered and sieved through a mesh of size 150µm. It was blended with carbon black (N330) and used as filler in natural rubber (NR) compound. The proportion of CMSS in the blend with N330 is 40per hundred rubber (phr), 37.5phr, 30phr, 20phr, 10phr, and 2.5phr. The total filler loading of the blend in all the mix is 40phr. A laboratory two roll mill was used for mixing. The rheometry readings and the cure characteristics of the mixes were determined at 160OC using a moving die Mosanto rheometer model MDR 2000. The Mooney viscosity was determined on MKIII Mooney viscometer. There is a marginal increase in viscosity in CMSS and N330 blend filled NR but higher with higher percentage of N330 in the blend .The torque–time curve obtained from rheometer reading of all the mixes followed similar pattern. The induction time decreases with a decrease in N330 content in the blend of N330 and CMSS filled natural rubber. The addition of the filler   blend increases the rate of scorch over the gum rubber.  The rate of cure increases with increase in the percentage of CMSS in the blend.    However, the more the N330 in the mix, the higher the maximum torque.  Comparatively, blending of CMSS with N330 improves the torque and other cure characteristics of filled natural rubber.

 

 

 

 

AIR QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN A CRUDE OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITY WITH A FLOW STATION

           

S.A. Uzoekwe*, E.E. Ukpebor** and S.I. Ahonkhai**

*Basic Sciences Department, Benson Idahosa University, Benin City

**Chemistry Department, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

 

Abstract

The quality of air in Gelegele community, with a flow station, has been assessed in both wet and dry seasons by using NO2. In this survey which was carried out between September 2002 and August 2003, Palmes diffusion tubes were used to determine NO2 concentration in ambient air of the studied area. A NO2 range of 8.75 – 48.52µgm-3 was obtained for the five locations studied. This upper limit of this range has slightly exceeded the WHO regulatory limit of 40µgm-3 annual average. Spatial and temporal variations were noticed in the NO2 distribution. The principal component analysis identified two factors with factor 1 (gas flaring) contributing over 73.0%. Finally, temporal cluster membership of the data was identified.

 

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